Background 1. Incidence Anal canal cancer is a relatively rare tumor, representing approximately 1. It is approximately 20 to 30 times rarer than colon cancer, but its annual incidence is increasing, reaching up to cases, with a female predominance 2.
There is an important geographic variation regarding its incidence, as well as histopathological type. The mainstay of the treatment hpv anorectal cancer represented by chemo-radiotherapy, radical surgery being reserved to residual tumor or recurrences.
Table 1; AJCC staging for anal cancer 2. Histopathology Depending on the lining epithelium, anal canal is divided into three regions: colorectal zone: located proximally and containg columnar epithelium; transitional zone: spread over a distance that varies between 0 and 12 mm that contains a pseudostratified type of epithelium resembling the urothelial one. A transformation zone is unanimously accepted in uterine cancer.
This region of metaplasia is extremely susceptible to HPV action 4 ; squamous zone: contains a non-keratinized epithelium, without hair follicles. Leiomyosarcomas, lymphomas and small cell carcinomas similar in terms of evolution and prognosis to lung small vaccino hpv infertilita carcinomasundifferentiated carcinoma or anal GIST - only 17 cases described in literature up to 7 - have also been reported.
Concerning anal margin neoplasia, these are represented by: Bowen disease in situ squamous-cell carcinoma ; invasive squamous-cell carcinoma; Paget disease; basal cell carcinoma: an extremely rare tumor, approximately 20 cases having been reported in 20 years 28that is of good prognostic. The treatment consists in ample local resection or rectal amputation in case of sphincter invasion. TNM staging Anal cancer staging is based on tumor dimension, lymph node status and presence or absence of distance metastases.
The risk of lymph node metastases is correlated with tumor size, invasion and grading. Risk factors Hpv anorectal cancer perianal pathology - cancer colon liver lung fissures and fistulas determine a chronic local inflammation that can lead to genetic alterations and have been incriminated as being etiologic factors. However, recent studies did not show a significant correlation between this pathology hpv anorectal cancer the development of anal carcinoma 8.
Sexual activity - according to a study lead by Daling, patients with anal cancer had genital hpv anorectal cancer, type II HSV and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in their medical history. In the case of male patients, homosexuality, bisexuality, history of genital papilomatosis or gonorrhea have been associated to a higher risk of anal cancer 9. Another study, published inadds to the risk factors, for females: history of gonorrhea, uterine cervix dysplasia, more than 10 sexual partners, anal sexual intercourse; for male patients: syphilis is another risk factor HPV infection - it is the widest spread hpv anorectal cancer transmitted infection in Europe Anal HPV infection can be clinically inapparent or it hpv anorectal cancer manifest as condyloma.
Of all HPV subtypes, subtype 16 is the most frequently incriminated as carcinogen.
Беккер повернулся, печально посмотрев в последний раз на ее руку.
Этот волшебный вечер был шесть месяцев назад, до того как Дэвида неожиданно назначили главой факультета современных языков.
- Papillary urothelial neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential
- Verrugas papiloma humano en la cara
- Virus hpv e colposcopia
Viral transmission is not influenced by the use of condoms as it is localized at the base of the penis and scrotum.
Cigarette smoking - a study conducted in the early s highlighted a relative risk of 1. Carcinogenesis associated to hpv anorectal cancer smoking can be linked to an anti-androgenic effect of tobacco.
HIV infection - some studies showed an increase in anal canal cancer in seropositive patients. The severity and length of HPV infection are inversely proportional correlated to CD4 lymphocyte number. Immunocompromised patients, either due to HIV infection or to post-transplantation status or chemotherapy, have an increased risk of HPV hpv anorectal cancer and progression to squamous cell carcinoma Anatomy Surgical anal canal spreads from ano-rectal ring 2 cm above the dentate line to the external anal orifice.
Statistici și prognostic Ce este cancerul anal? Cancerul anal se formează la nivelul anusului, situat la capătul tractului gastro-intestinal. Este diferit și mai puțin frecvent decât cancerul colorectal, care este cancerul colonului sau rectului. Cancerul anal este rar. Anusul este capătul intestinului gros, sub rect, prin care scaunul este eliminat din corp.
Anal cancer must be distinguished from anal margin neoplasia that originates from the skin that presents perianal hair. Some authors consider a 5 cm distance from the external anal orifice as the lateral limit The correct classification of perianal neoplasia into the two mentioned categories is extremely important hpv anorectal cancer those of anal margin are of better prognosis. Altogether, an erroneous classification could overestimate the role of radio-chemotherapy Pectinate line represents an extremely important landmark for the vascularization and lymph node drainage.
Thus, above this line, venous drainage is to the portal circulation, by way of inferior mesenteric vein and below venous blood drains into systemic circulation through pudendal and hypogastric esami del sangue per papilloma hpv anorectal cancer Above the pectinate line lymphatics drain into the inferior mesenteric, but also to hypogastric and obturatory lymph nodes, while below pectinate line-especially to inguinal lymph nodes, but also to femoral ones Due to the resemblance to benign perianal pathology, the diagnosis is too often delayed.
Clinical examination consists in the inspection of perianal skin, anal margin, rectal examination and anoscopy and should indicate tumor localization above or below the pectinate line or its pertaining to anal margin.
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Bilateral inguinal region palpation is mandatory due to the lymphatic drainage to those lymphatic groups. Echo-endoscopy points our eventual loco-regional lymphadenopathies and gynecologic examination can indicate the coexistence of a uterine cervix lesion.
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The diagnostic of certainty is based on histopathologic examination. Bioptic samples can be easily obtained with hpv anorectal cancer patient in gynecological position; however, colonoscopy with exploration up to the cecum is obligatory to exclude eventual hpv anorectal cancer lesions. As with other paraclinical investigations, a CT examination of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis or an MRI is recommended to point out possible secondary tumors.
Untill the s, standard treatment consisted in abdominoperineal rectal amputation. For patients having small lesions, a large local excision has been proposed, hpv anorectal cancer however by disappointing results, excepting patients with a smaller than 2 cm anal margin cancer Abdominoperineal rectal amputation is the standard salvage therapy for patients who develop local recurrences.
Anal canal cancer diagnosis and treatment aspects
Hpv anorectal cancer invasion into neighboring organs is not a contraindication of resection, provided a R0 resection is achieved. This fact has lead to the use of rotated or advanced musculocutaneous flaps to ameliorate the healing process. Provided the pelvic disease is controlled, isolated liver or lung metastases have indications for surgical resection.
Due to significant morbidity and the relatively low impact on survival, prophylactic inguinal lymphadenectomy is not recommended Inguinal lymphadenectomy is indicated for patients with voluminous lymphatic blocks or to those with an obvious lymphadenopathy after chemo-radiotherapy Some authors recommend for synchronous lymphadenopathies inguinal lymphadenectomy with chemo- hpv anorectal cancer radiotherapy following the healing of the wound.
For metachronous lymphadenopathies, the treatment consists of lymphadenectomy followed by radiotherapy. The complications of the intervention consist in: wound dehiscence, hematomas, seromas, lymphoceles and lymphedema. Cancer statistics, CA Cancer J Clin ; 2. CA Cancer J Clin ; International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cancer incidence in five continents. hpv anorectal cancer
Springer Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven; Malignant tumors of the anal canal: the spectrum of disease, treatment, and outcomes. Cancer ; 85 8 hpv anorectal cancer 7. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anus. Tech Coloproctol ; Anal hpv anorectal cancer incidence: genital warts, anal fissure or fistula, hemorrhoids, and smoking.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; Sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, and the incidence of anal cancer. N Engl J Med Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer. Declety G - Cancer de canal anal in Les cancers digestifs. Springer, Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer.
Cancer Hpv anorectal cancer Am J Epidemiol.
Cancerul de canal anal - aspecte legate de diagnostic și tratament
hpv anorectal cancer Tobacco smoking as a risk factor in anal carcinoma: an antiestrogenic mechanism? Mullerat J, Northover J. Human papilloma virus and anal neoplastic lesions in the immunocompromised Transplant patient. Semin Colon Rectal Surg ; Results of definitive irradiation in a series of epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal.
Management hpv anorectal cancer inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal: experience in a series of patients treated in Lyon and review of the literature.
Cancer ; Epidermoid anal cancer: results from the UKCCCR randomised trial of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy, 5-fluorouracil, and mitomycin.
Lancet ; Anal carcinoma: histology, staging, epidemiology, treatment. Curr Opin Oncol ; Surgical management of epidermoid carcinoma of the anus.
Ce este cancerul anal?
Am J Surg. Salvage abdomino-perineal resection after failed Nigro protocol: modest succes, major morbidity. Colorectal Dis. Salvage abdominoperineal resection following combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for epidermoid carcinoma hpv anorectal cancer the anus.
Cancerul anal - Tot ce trebuie să ştii | Cancer
Ann Surg Oncol ; 1: Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol. Malignant tumors of the anal canal: the spectrum of disease, treatment and outcomes.
Затем, с еще мокрыми волосами, угощал поверженного соперника орешками и соком.
Appraisal of the treatment of carcinoma of the anus and anal hpv anorectal cancer. Surg Gynecol Obstet ; Surgical management of metastatic inguinal lymphadeopathy. Recurrent epidermoid cancer of the anus.
- Cancerul de canal anal - aspecte legate de diagnostic și tratament
Внутри было протянуто восемь миллионов футов телефонного кабеля, общая площадь постоянно закрытых окон составляла восемьдесят тысяч квадратных футов.
- Sarcoma cancer of connective tissue
- Hepatic cancer receptor